Some Power Query internals

Whenever I’m given a black box, I marvel at its elegance. Then after a while, frustration settles in, as the IN’s and OUT’s don’t add up and even going through the official documentation doesn’t help. This is when I reach a point that I bring in a hammer and start banging at this black box until something gives in and secrets start pouring.

Same happened with Power BI and its elegant data mashup engine. I love the fact that it is a “pure, higher-order, dynamically typed, partially lazy functional language” , but the documentation doesn’t tell you much on how things work under the hood. So I started digging. And when I peeked at Microsoft.MashupEngine.dll internals, I was surprised to find half a dozen modules filled with Power Query (M) code. Being written by Microsoft, I assume that these modules can be used as a reference for best practices in Power Query code standards.

Some of the practices shared across all of the modules are:

Each module is wrapped in a section which

is an organizational concept that allows related expressions to be named and grouped within a document

Also the functions that are exposed to users are decorated with shared statement –

which omits the requirement to use a section-access-expression when referring to shared members outside of the containing section.

Although I’ve seen occasional use of section-access-expression as well –  LibraryModule!UICulture.GetString and TableModule!Table.AddColumns. My interpretation of these practices are, if you create a library in M, make sure to create a new named section, and mark all of the public members with shared decorator.

Moreover, the use of recursion is acceptable as long as it reduces the complexity of the code. And also I’ve seen a novel use of let expression, where the else clause of an if statement required some precomputed values (check Table.SplitColumn).

Here is the summary of Power Query modules that I’ve managed to salvage.


Date time arithmetic which doesn’t cover all of the business use-cases, however presents a very good source of inspiration for your own Date related functions. For even more Date related functions, make sure to check pquery repository.


This module is a great introduction to functional programming. It contains 10 List related functions that are build upon other List related functions. My favorite one is:

shared List.RemoveLastN =
(list as list, optional countOrCondition) as list =>
List.Reverse(list), countOrCondition));


Contains the details the code for SharePoint15.Tables, SharePoint15.Contents and SharePoint15.Files. Anyone that had to deal with fetching data from SharePoint into Power BI will recognize some of the details they had to think of when using the SharePoint connector. Moreover there are some great examples on how to use OData.Feeds and Web.Contents.


Contains details on data type mapping between SQL Server and Power BI that are used in SqlExpression.SchemaFrom. An interesting observation in this module is that although you can write a switch statement using some lists constructs, Microsoft kept this function very expressive, which means that you can see a dozen of else if’s.


Probably one of the most useful modules of the lot. As everyone is using Tables to output the results of their data wrangling. This module includes the details of 78 Table related functions.There are even some details about query folding. As expected most of the Table functions are based on Record and List primitives.


The last of the lot. Although this module contains the details of a single public function Text.Format, it also also contains the details of a function which can be used for text parsing. Have a look at GetPlaceholders.

GetPlaceholders =(
        offset as number,
        openCode as text,
        closeCode as text,
        numberReference as logical
) as list => ...

I’ve added all of these modules to GitHub.


5 thoughts on “Some Power Query internals

      1. No problem. It all sounded pretty interesting, though “Module.Table.m” was the curtain I really wanted to peek behind. It would be super cool to see how Table.AddColumn() is implemented (assuming it’s there) as it’d give some more insight into tables in general. I’ll see what I can do on my own and thanks again for the great content 🙂


  1. I’m curious about the hammer… I found this post while trying to create a connection to PQ from python without using the ‘load data to powerpivot and connect to SSAS’ trick. The thing is that I have no knowledge on using undocumented dlls. How did you get to see the source of this dll? Did you find anything about the dependencies and functionalities of the others PQ dlls? The most probable scenario is that I won’t be able to hack my way into it but I want to give it a try anyway…


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